"Interpreting the pharmaceutical industry’s approach to intellectual property" Notes & Resources

Notes

[1] Baker, “Cover Letter of Entry.”

[2] Rockoff and Silverman, “Firms Buy Rival Drugs, Then Raise Their Prices.”

[3] Ibid.

[4] Walker, “Boosts Outpace Inflation and Often Are Imposed Even When Demand Falls.”

[5] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, “Single Technology Appraisal: Palbociclib in Combination with an Aromatase Inhibitor for Previously Untreated Metastatic, Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer”; Finn et al., “Palbociclib and Letrozole in Advanced Breast Cancer.”

[6] Bach, Saltz, and Wittes, “A Hospital Says ‘No’ to an $11,000-a-Month Cancer Drug.”

[7] Walker, “Out-of-Pocket Costs for Pricey New Drugs Leave Even Some Insured and Relatively Affluent Patients with Hard Choices on How to Afford Them.”

[8] Increasing from 14% to 17% of total spending

[9] Health Research Institute, “Medical Cost Trend: Behind the Numbers 2017.”

[10] Szabo, “As Drug Costs Soar, People Delay or Skip Cancer Treatments.”

[11] Whalen, “State Buyers Drive Hard Bargains, Are Willing to Say No to a Costly Therapy”; Walker, “Out-of-Pocket Costs for Pricey New Drugs Leave Even Some Insured and Relatively Affluent Patients with Hard Choices on How to Afford Them.”

[12] De George, “Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs.”

[13] Express Scripts, “2016 Drug Trend Report.”

[14] Resnik, “A Pluralistic Account of Intellectual Property.”

[15] Ibid.

[16] De George, “Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs.”

[17] Ibid.

[18] Locke, Second Treatise of Government, chap. 5.

[19] Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, 178.

[20] Ibid., 175; Bader, Robert Nozick, 38.

[21] Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, sec. Why Side Constraints?

[22] Ibid., sec. 1. What are Constraints Based Upon? 2. Redistribution and Property Rights.

[23] Ibid., sec. The Entitlement Theory.

[24] Ibid., sec. Redistribution and Property Rights.

[25] Ibid., sec. Redistribution and Property Rights.

[26] Ibid., sec. Historical Principles and End-Result Principles.

[27] Ibid., sec. Patterning.

[28] Scannell, “Four Reasons Drugs Are Expensive, Of Which Two Are False.”

[29] Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, sec. The Proviso.

[30] Ibid., sec. Redistribution and Property Rights.

[31] Ibid., sec. The Proviso.

[32] Libertarian philosophy rejects the notion of a social good which transcends the separate existences of individuals within a community. The atomistic view of society is characterized as “only individual people, different individual people, with their own individual lives.” (Ibid., sec. Why Side Constraints?) Nozick argues that moral balancing of harms and benefits from redistribution requires belief in the existence of the social good. In the absence of a social good, the sacrificing individual does not receive an overbalancing good in exchange for the loss. (Ibid.)

[33] Hessler and Buchanan, “Specifying the Content of the Human Right to Health Care.”

[34] World Health Organization, “WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.”

[35] Lee and Hunt, “Human Rights Responsibilities of Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines.”

[36] “Essential Medicines and Health Products.”

[37] De George, “Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs.”

[38] Lee and Hunt, “Human Rights Responsibilities of Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines”; De George, “Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs.”

[39] “WTO | Intellectual Property (TRIPS) - TRIPS and Public Health.”

[40] Moon, “Respecting the Right to Access to Medicines.”

[41] Express Scripts, “2016 Drug Trend Report”; Thomas, “A Push to Lower Drug Prices That Hit Insurers and Employers the Hardest.”

[42] Whalen, “State Buyers Drive Hard Bargains, Are Willing to Say No to a Costly Therapy.”

[43] Thomas, “A Push to Lower Drug Prices That Hit Insurers and Employers the Hardest.”

[44] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Social Value Judgements.

[45] Ibid.

[46] Ibid., 9.

[47] Daniels, “Justice, Health, and Healthcare”; National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Social Value Judgements, 13.

[48] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Social Value Judgements, 24. Per the Citizens Council: health should not be considered more valuable in younger patients, age-related social roles should not effect cost-effectiveness decisions, and NICE recommendations should not be influenced by whether a condition was self-induced.

[49] Ibid., 17.

[50] Hayry and Häyry, “Utilitarian Approaches to Justice in Health Care,” 58.

References

Bach, Peter B., Peter B. Bach Saltz Leonard B., and Robert E. Wittes. “A Hospital Says ‘No’ to an $11,000-a-Month Cancer Drug.” The New York Times, October 14, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/opinion/a-hospital-says-no-to-an-11000-a-month-cancer-drug.html.

 

Bader, Ralf M. Robert Nozick. New York: Continuum, 2010. http://electra.lmu.edu:2055/lib/loyolamarymount/reader.action?ppg=31&docID=10488191&tm=1493611855327.

 

Baker, Gerard. “Cover Letter of Entry.” The 2016 Pulitzer Prize Finalist in Explanatory Reporting: Jonathan D. Rockoff, Joseph Walker, Jeanne Whalen, Peter Loftus and Ed Silverman of The Wall Street Journal. Accessed May 4, 2017. http://pulitzer.lamptest.columbia.edu/finalists/jonathan-d-rockoff-joseph-walker-jeanne-whalen-peter-loftus-and-ed-silverman.

 

Daniels, Norman. “Justice, Health, and Healthcare.” American Journal of Bioethics 1, no. 2 (2001): 2–16.

 

De George, Richard T. “Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs: An Ethical Analysis.” Business Ethics Quarterly 15, no. 4 (2005): 549–575.

 

“Essential Medicines and Health Products.” World Health Organization. Accessed April 18, 2017. http://www.who.int/medicines/services/essmedicines_def/en/.

 

Express Scripts. “2016 Drug Trend Report.” Drug Trend Report, February 2017. http://lab.express-scripts.com/lab/drug-trend-report.

 

Finn, Richard S., Miguel Martin, Hope S. Rugo, Stephen Jones, Seock-Ah Im, Karen Gelmon, Nadia Harbeck, et al. “Palbociclib and Letrozole in Advanced Breast Cancer.” New England Journal of Medicine 375, no. 20 (November 17, 2016): 1925–36. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1607303.

 

Hayry, Matti, and M. Häyry. “Utilitarian Approaches to Justice in Health Care.” In Medicine and Social Justice: Essays on the Distribution of Health Care, edited by R. Battin Rhodes and A. M. Silvers. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2002.

 

Health Research Institute. “Medical Cost Trend: Behind the Numbers 2017.” Medical Cost Trend: Behind the Numbers. PricewaterhousCoopers, June 2016. https://www.pwc.com/us/en/healthcare/publications/pdf/pwc-hri-medical-cost-trend-2017.pdf.

 

Hessler, Kristen, and Allen Buchanan. “Specifying the Content of the Human Right to Health Care.” In Medicine and Social Justice: Essays on the Distribution of Health Care, edited by Anita Silvers, M. Pabst Battin, and Rosamond Rhodes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. http://electra.lmu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=315051&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

 

Lee, Joo-Young, and Paul Hunt. “Human Rights Responsibilities of Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines.” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (2012): 220.

 

Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government, 2010. http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/locke1689a.pdf.

 

Moon, Suerie. “Respecting the Right to Access to Medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the Pharmaceutical Industry.” Health and Human Rights 15, no. 1 (June 14, 2013): E32-43.

 

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. “Single Technology Appraisal: Palbociclib in Combination with an Aromatase Inhibitor for Previously Untreated Metastatic, Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer.” Committee Papers. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), February 3, 2017. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/GID-TA10068/documents/committee-papers-2.

 

———. Social Value Judgements: Principles for the Development of NICE Guidance. NICE Process and Methods Guides. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK395865/.

 

Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 2013. http://proquestcombo.safaribooksonline.com/book/current-affairs/9780465063741.

 

Resnik, David B. “A Pluralistic Account of Intellectual Property.” Journal of Business Ethics 46, no. 4 (2003): 319–335.

 

Rockoff, Jonathan D, and Ed Silverman. “Firms Buy Rival Drugs, Then Raise Their Prices.” The 2016 Pulitzer Prize Finalist in Explanatory Reporting: Jonathan D. Rockoff, Joseph Walker, Jeanne Whalen, Peter Loftus and Ed Silverman of The Wall Street Journal, April 27, 2015. http://pulitzer.lamptest.columbia.edu/finalists/jonathan-d-rockoff-joseph-walker-jeanne-whalen-peter-loftus-and-ed-silverman.

 

Scannell, Jack. “Four Reasons Drugs Are Expensive, Of Which Two Are False.” Forbes, October 13, 2015. http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2015/10/13/four-reasons-drugs-are-expensive-of-which-two-are-false/.

Szabo, Liz. “As Drug Costs Soar, People Delay Or Skip Cancer Treatments.” NPR.org, March 15, 2017. http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/03/15/520110742/as-drug-costs-soar-people-delay-or-skip-cancer-treatments.

 

Thomas, Katie. “A Push to Lower Drug Prices That Hit Insurers and Employers the Hardest.” The New York Times, September 8, 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/09/business/express-scripts-urges-narrower-coverage-of-anti-inflammatory-drugs.html.

 

Walker, Joseph. “Boosts Outpace Inflation and Often Are Imposed Even When Demand Falls.” The 2016 Pulitzer Prize Finalist in Explanatory Reporting: Jonathan D. Rockoff, Joseph Walker, Jeanne Whalen, Peter Loftus and Ed Silverman of The Wall Street Journal, October 6, 2015. http://pulitzer.lamptest.columbia.edu/finalists/jonathan-d-rockoff-joseph-walker-jeanne-whalen-peter-loftus-and-ed-silverman.

 

———. “Out-of-Pocket Costs for Pricey New Drugs Leave Even Some Insured and Relatively Affluent Patients with Hard Choices on How to Afford Them.” The 2016 Pulitzer Prize Finalist in Explanatory Reporting: Jonathan D. Rockoff, Joseph Walker, Jeanne Whalen, Peter Loftus and Ed Silverman of The Wall Street Journal, December 31, 2015. http://pulitzer.lamptest.columbia.edu/finalists/jonathan-d-rockoff-joseph-walker-jeanne-whalen-peter-loftus-and-ed-silverman.

 

Whalen, Jeanne. “State Buyers Drive Hard Bargains, Are Willing to Say No to a Costly Therapy.” The 2016 Pulitzer Prize Finalist in Explanatory Reporting: Jonathan D. Rockoff, Joseph Walker, Jeanne Whalen, Peter Loftus and Ed Silverman of The Wall Street Journal, December 1, 2015. http://pulitzer.lamptest.columbia.edu/finalists/jonathan-d-rockoff-joseph-walker-jeanne-whalen-peter-loftus-and-ed-silverman.

 

World Health Organization. “WHO Model List of Essential Medicines: 19th List, April 2015,” 2015. http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/.

 

WTO | Intellectual Property (TRIPS) - TRIPS and Public Health.” Accessed May 6, 2017. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/pharmpatent_e.htm.

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