"Un-Manned?: The Bodily Harms and Moral Valor of Drone Warfare" Notes and Resources 

Notes

[1] Todd Robberson, “Combat medal for remotely piloting a drone is insulting,” The Dallas Morning News, February 14, 2013, doi: http://dallasmorningviewsblog.dallasnews.com/2013/02/combat-medal-for-remotely-piloting-a-drone-is-insulting.html/.

[2] There is an expanding body of literature examining and critiquing both the bureaucratic and legal processes by which U.S. drone strikes are authorized and human targets are selected, and their civilian casualty rates.  For a representative sample see Abizaid and Brooks 2014, Zenko 2013, and Anderson 2009.

[3] “‘Distinguished Warfare Medal’ created for cyber, drone wars,” Politico.com, last modified February 13, 2103. http://www.politico.com/story/2013/02/distinguished-warfare-medal-created-for-cyber-drone-wars-087595.

[4] “U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet – Bronze Star.” United States Air Force, accessed on November 15, 2015, http://www.afpc.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet_print.asp?fsID=7771&page=1.

[5]Mark Thompson, “Not-So-Heavy-Medal,” Time, April 16, 2013, doi: http://nation.time.com/2013/04/16/not-so-heavy-medal/.

[6] “VFW Wants New Medal Ranking Lowered,” VFW.org, last modified on February 14, 2013, http://www.vfw.org/News-and-Events/Articles/2013-Articles/VFW-WANTS-NEW-MEDAL-RANKING-LOWERED/.

[7] “Military Order of the Purple Heart Opposes Precedence of New Defense Medal,” The Military Order of the Purple Heart, last modified on February 15, 2013, http://www.purpleheart.org/News.aspx?Identity=238.

[8] United States Congress. House of Representatives. To amend title 10, United States Code, to require the Purple Heart occupy a position of precedence above the new Distinguished Warfare Medal. H.R. 833. 113th Congress. 1st Session, 2013. Retrieved on November 15, 2015 (https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/833)

[9] Joyce Tsai, “Lawmakers introduce bill to demote Pentagon’s new medal,” Stars and Stripes, February 27 2013, doi: http://www.stripes.com/news/lawmakers-introduce-bill-to-demote-pentagon-s-new-medal-1.209925?=&utm_source=Stars+and+Stripes+Emails&utm_campaign=Daily+Headlines&utm_medium=email

[10] Ibid.

[11] Lolita C. Baldor, “Hagel cancels creation of new drone, cyber medal,” Yahoo News, April 15, 2013, doi: http://news.yahoo.com/hagel-cancels-creation-drone-cyber-medal-183921051--politics.html.

[12] Christian Enemark, Armed Drones and the Ethics of War: Military Virtue in a Post-Heroic Age (New York, Routledge, 2014).

[13] Enemark 2014 (35).

[14] Ibid (116).

[15] Ibid.

[16] Ibid. (79)

[17] Ibid.

[18]Ibid. (79)

[19] Ibid. (80)

[20] Ibid.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid. (81)

[23] Ibid. (84)

[24] Ibid. (84)

[25] Ibid. (84)

[26] Ibid. (84)

[27] Ibid. (84)

[28] Ibid. (85)

[29] Ibid. (85)

[30] Ibid. (86)

[31] Ibid. (86)

[32] Ibid. (91)

[33] Ibid. (91)

[34] Ibid.  (95)

[35] Ibid.

[36] Ibid. (96)

[37] Jean L. Otto and Bryant J. Webber, “Mental Health Diagnoses and Counseling among Pilots of Remotely Piloted Aircraft in the United States Air Force,” Medical Service Monthly Report 20:3 (2013), 3-8.

[38] Otto and Webber 2013 (4). In total 12 mental health conditions were identified. In addition to those mentioned above Otto and Webber also found RPA and MA pilots suffering from alcohol abuse, partner relationship problems, family circumstance problems, maltreatment, life circumstance problems, and behavioral problems. 

[39] Ibid (5)

[40] Ibid. (3)

[41] Matthew Power, “Confessions of a Drone Warrior,” Gentleman’s Quarterly Magazine, October 22, 2013, doi: http://www.gq.com/story/drone-uav-pilot-assassination.

[42] Ibid.

[43] James Dao, “Drone Pilots Are Found to Get Stress Disorders Much as Those in Combat,” The New York Times (New York, NY), February 22, 2013.

[44] Powers 2013

[45] Enemark 2014, 86.

[46] Powers 2013.

[47] Peter Lee, “Remoteness, Risk and Aircrew Ethos,” Air Power Review 15, no. 1 (2012): 14.

[48] Ibid.

[49] Ibid.

[50] Powers 2013.

[51] Brett T. Litz, et al., “Moral injury and moral repair in war veterans: A preliminary model and intervention strategy,” Clinical Psychology Review 29, no.8 (2009): 700.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Lee 2012, 13.

[54] Ibid.

[55] Enemark 2014, 95.

[56] Ibid., 86.

[57] Robert Sparrow, “Drones, Courage and Military Culture,” in Routledge Handbook of Military Ethics, ed. George Lucas 2015, 383.

[58] Warren Kinghorn, “Combat Trauma and Moral Fragmentation: A Theological Account of Moral Injury,” Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 32, no. 2 (2012): 62-63.

References

 

Abizaid, J. P. and Rosa Brooks (2014) Recommendations and Report of The Task Force 

    on US Drone Policy, The Stimson Center, Washington, D.C.

Anderson, K (2009) Targeted Killing in U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy and Law, 

    Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.

Baldor, L (2013) Hagel cancels creation of new drone, cyber medal, The Associated Press

    doi: http://news.yahoo.com/hagel-cancels-creation-drone-cyber-medal-183921051-- 

    politics.html

Dao, J (2013) Drone Pilots Are Found to Get Stress Disorders Much as Those in Combat, The  

    New York Times

Enemark, C (2014) Armed Drones and the Ethics of War: Military Virtue in a Post-Heroic Age,

    Routledge, New York

Kinghorn, W (2012) Combat Trauma and Moral Fragmentation: A Theological Account, Journal

     of the Society of Christian Ethics 32: 57-74

Lee, P (2012) Remoteness, Risk and Aircrew Ethos, Air Power Review 15:1-20

Litz, B, Nathan Stein, Eileen Delaney, Leslie Lebowitz, William P. Nash, Caroline Silva, and

    Shira Maguen (2009) Moral injury and moral repair in war veterans: A preliminary model and

    intervention strategy, Clinical Psychology Review 29: 695-708

The Military Order of the Purple Heart (2013) Military Order of the Purple Heart Opposes

    Precedence of New Defense Medal

    doi: http://www.purpleheart.org/News.aspx?Identity=238

Otto, J and Bryant J. Webber (2013) Mental Health Diagnoses and Counseling among Pilots of

    Remotely Piloted Aircraft in the United States Air Force, Medical Service Monthly Report

    20:3-8

Politico.com (2013) Distinguished Warfare Medal’ created for cyber, drone wars

    doi: http://www.politico.com/story/2013/02/distinguished-warfare-medal-created-for-cyber-    

    drone-wars-087595

Power, M (2013) Confessions of a Drone Warrior, Gentleman’s Quarterly Magazine

    doi: http://www.gq.com/story/drone-uav-pilot-assassination

Roberson, T (2013) Combat medal for remotely piloting a drone is insulting. The Dallas

    Morning News

    doi: http://dallasmorningviewsblog.dallasnews.com/2013/02/combat-medal-for-remotely- 

    piloting-a-drone-is-insulting.html/

Sparrow, R (2015) Drones, Courage and Military Culture in Routledge Handbook of Military

    Ethics, ed. George Lucas, Routledge, New York

United States Air Force, U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet – Bronze Star

    doi: http://www.afpc.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet_print.asp?fsID=7771&page=1

United States Congress (2013) To amend title 10, United States Code, to require the Purple Heart

    occupy a position of precedence above the new Distinguished Warfare Medal

    doi: https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/833

Veterans of Foreign Wars (2013) VFW Wants New Medal Ranking Lowered

    doi: http://www.vfw.org/News-and-Events/Articles/2013-Articles/VFW-WANTS-NEW-

    MEDAL-RANKING-LOWERED/

Zenko, Micah (2013) Reforming U.S. Drone Strike Policies, Council on Foreign Relations, Washington, D.C.

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