Bibliography

 

Arras, John D. “Toward an Ethic of Ambiguity.” Hastings Center Report 14 (April 1984): 25-33.

Beauchamp, Tom., and James Childress. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 7th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2012.

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. “Sanctity of Life, Quality of Life, and Social Justice.” Theological Studies 48, no. 1 (March 1987): 105–23.

Camosy, Charles. Too Expensive to Treat? Finitude, Tragedy, and the Neonatal ICU. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 2010.

———.  “Which Newborns Are Too Expensive to Treat? A Response to Dominic Wilkinson.” Journal of Medical Ethics 39, no. 8 (2013): 507–8.

Compendium Of The Social Doctrine Of The Church. Vatican City: Liberia Editrice Vaticana. 2004.

Gastmans, Chris, et al. "From Birth to Death? A Personalist Approach to End-of-Life Care of Severely Ill Newborns." Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies In Medical Morality 19, no. 1 (April 2013): 7-24. 

“Greek Medicine - The Hippocratic Oath.” Exhibitions. Accessed November 28, 2017. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/greek/greek_oath.html.

Janssens, Louis. “Artificial Insemination: Ethical considerations”. Louvain Studies 8, (1980-1981) 3-29.

Markwell, Hazel. “End-of-Life: A Catholic View.” The Lancet 366, no. 9491 (September 24, 2005): 1132–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67425-9.

McCormick, Ricard. “To Save or Let Die: The Dilemma of Modern Medicine.” Journal of the American Medical Association. 229. (July 8, 1974): 172-176.

———. “The Quality of Life, The Sanctity of Life.” Hastings Center Report 8 (February 1978): 30-36.

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Munz, Michele. “More Babies Going to the NICU, and More than Half Are Normal Weight, Study Finds.” stltoday.com. Accessed December 1, 2017. http://www.stltoday.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/health/more-babies-going-to-the-nicu-and-more-than-half/article_03b339e0-0be1-5d99-ad38-9a17f54311e5.html.

Panicola, Michael. “Quality of Life and the Critically Ill Newborn: Life and Death Decision Making in the Neonatal Context.” Ph.D. diss., Saint Louis University, 2000

President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Deciding to Forego Life-Sustaining Treatment: A Report on the Ethical, Medical, and Legal Issues in Treatment Decisions. Washington, D.C.: President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1983.

Sparks, Ricard. To Treat or Not To Treat. New York: Paulist Press, 1988.

Rhoden, Nancy K., and John D. Arras. “Withholding Treatment from Baby Doe: From Discrimination to Child Abuse.” The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, no. 1 (1985): 18. https://doi.org/10.2307/3349897.

———. "I. Quality of Life in Clinical Decisions." In Bioethics, 4th ed., edited by Bruce Jennings, 1817-1824. Vol. 4. Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, 2014. Gale Virtual Reference Library (accessed October 24th, 2017). http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3727400362/GVRL?u=loym48904&sid=GVRL&xid=415ac91e.

 ———. “Termination of Medical Treatment: The Setting of Moral Limits from Infancy to Old Age.” Religious Studies Review 16, no. 4 (October 1990): 302–7.

Wilkinson, D. “Is It in the Best Interests of an Intellectually Disabled Infant to Die?” Journal of Medical Ethics 32, no. 8 (2006): 454–59.

Wilkinson, Dominic. “Which Newborn Infants Are Too Expensive to Treat? Camosy and Rationing in Intensive Care.” Journal of Medical Ethics 39, no. 8 (August 2013): 502.

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[1] Metallica. One. Recorded 1988. Track 4 on …And Justice For All. Elektra. Compact Disc.

[2] James Walter, “Termination of Medical Treatment: The Setting of Moral Limits from Infancy to Old Age.” Religious Studies Review 16, no. 4 (October 1990):302-7

[3] I do not mean to disparage the immense benefits these technologies have yielded, but it is clear new states of being have arisen as a consequence of their application.

[4] Richard Sparks, To Treat or Not To Treat? Bioethics and the Handicapped Newborn. (New York: Paulist Press, 1988) 294.

[5] For example, I will not take up medical indications theories.

[6] Michael Panicola, Quality of Life and the Critically Ill Newborn: Life and Death Decision Making In the Neontal Context. Ph.D. diss., Saint Louis University, 200

[7] United States President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, “Seriously ill Newborns in,” in Deciding to Forgo Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983). 198

[8] Panicola, Quality of Life, 10

[9] Michele Muz, “More babies going to the NICU, and more than half are normal weight study finds,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 29, 2015, http://www.stltoday.com/.

[10] Panicola, Quality of Life, 141

[11] ibid., 142

[12] ibid., 142

[13] For an excellent overview on theories of moral status see, Beauchamp and Childress, Principle of Biomedical Ethics. 62-93

[14] Panicola, Quality of Life, 142.

[15] John Arras, “Toward an Ethic of Ambiguity,” The Hasting Center Report 14, no. 2 (1984): 25

[16] Ibid., 26.

[17] Ibid., 26.

[18] Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 7th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 228.

[19] John Arras, Toward an Ethic, 28.

[20] John Arras, Toward an Ethics, 28.

[21] Panicola, Quality of Life, 148. 

[22] ibid., 149.

[23] Ibid., 149

[24] Matt 22:35 (New Revised Standard Version)

[25] Panicola, Quality of Life, 150.

[26] Sparks, To Treat Or Not To Treat, 304.

[27] Ibid., 295.

[28] Ibid., 295

[29] Ibid., 304

[30] ibid., 304

[31] ibid., 304

[32] ibid., 304-305

[33] Embodied is used here because all aspects of best interest that Spark utilizes shares in being an embodied reality.

[34] Sparks, To Treat or Not To Treat, 305.

[35] Ibid., 306

[36] ibid., 307

[37] ibid., 308

[38] ibid., 308

[39] Charles Camosy, Too Expensive To Treat? Finitude, Tragedy, and the Neonatal ICU (Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2010), 118.

[40] Camosy, Too Expensive to Treat?, 116.

[41] Ibid., 120

[42] Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana). 73

[43] ibid., 75

[44] Camosy, Too Finite To Treat?, 121.

[45] Ibid., 122

[46] ibid., 121

[47] Oxford American Dictionary, (Avon Books, 1980) s.v. “triage”

[48] Camosy, Too Finite To Treat, 129.

[49] Ibid., 130.

[50] Panicola, Quality of Life, 178.

[51] Ibid., 178.

[52] Ibid., 179.

[53] Ibid., 184.

[54] Ibid., 184.

[55] Ibid., 185.

[56] Ibid., 187.

[57] Ibid., 242.

[58] Ibid., 243.

[59] Ibid., 244.

[60] Ibid., 244.

[61] Ibid., 244.

[62] Ibid., 246.

[63] Ibid., 246.

[64] Ibid., 247

[65] Louis Janssens, “Artificial insemination: Ethical Considerations.” Louvain Studies 8, no. 3 (1980-1981) 4.

[66] Ibid., 6.

[67] Ibid., 6.

[68] Ibid., 7.

[69] Ibid., 8.

[70] Ibid., 8

[71] Ibid., 9.

[72] Ibid., 9.

[73] Ibid., 10.

[74] Ibid., 10.

[75] Ibid., 12.

[76] Christ Gastmans et al. “From Birth to Death? A Personalist Approach to End-of-Life Care of Severely Ill Newborns.” Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies IN Medical Morality 19, no. 1 (April 2013) 11.

[77] Ibid., 11.

[78] Ibid., 12.

[79] Ibid., 13.

[80] Ibid., 13.

[81] Ibid., 13.

[82] Ibid., 14.

[83] Ibid., 14.

[84] Ibid., 12.

[85] Ibid., 15-16.

[86] Gastmans, From Birth to Death?, 12.

[87] The Charlie Gard case comes to mind.

[88] Gastmans, From Birth to Death?, 14.

[89] Ibid., 14.

[90] Ibid., 14.

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